Proper Running Footstrike: 3 Steps To Improve It!

As a lot of you know by now, running boils down to a lot more than just putting one foot in front of the other. In this post we tackle running footstrike with 3 surefire steps to improve it and perfect proper running form!

Proper Running Form: The 3 Most Common Types Of Foot Strike

proper way to run

The way your foot hits the ground as you run tends to fall into one of three categories.

Before we get into what they are, let’s first make something very clear.

One isn’t better or worse than another.

They are each valuable for some type of terrain, elevation change, section of a race, etc.

Understanding when to use them, and how to blend them to find your most “neutral” foot strike for the long runs will be our key focus here. And proper foot strike is a crucial piece of good form in your running technique.

Heel Style Strike:

In this method, the heel hits the ground before the rest of the foot follows suit to land. Heel strikers are common.

In fact, this is one of the most common foot strikes we see, and here’s why:

1) If you spend most of your day seated, you’ve probably developed chronically tight hips.

2) Due to this, your stride reaches out much further in front of you than it needs to. This is also known as overstriding.

3) You drive your running with your legs and feet, not your hips and glutes.

4) The heel style strike is your best attempt at catching and continuing that stride from one leg to the next.

While we don’t encourage “defaulting” to the heel style strike out of poor running form (especially for longer runs), we do think it can be beneficial as a brake system on a downhill or sharp turn. Utilizing this method in those instances can help minimize injury risk on downhills. Having said that, keep your stride length safe and reasonable as you navigate a descent.

Forefoot Strike Style:

You’ll find this type of foot strike on the opposite end of the spectrum.

What characterizes the forefoot style foot strike:

1) Your weight is heavily focused onto the ball of the foot and the toes.

2) Your heels are likely not hitting the ground between steps.

3) Your upper body may be a little bent forward from the hips.

Though spending an entire long run in this position would lead to tightness and cramps in the achilles’ and calves, the forefoot style foot strike works well to kick up your speed and push-off across a finish line or up a short hill. Consider it your gas pedal. Use it to live out your dreams of a sprinting finish.

Mid-Foot Strike Style:

Ah, a happy medium, the mid-foot. Not an over-stride, but not a forefoot strike either.

This is the most neutral foot strike of the three.

Most of your foot hits the ground at once, with your weight balanced right about even on top of your hips, knees, and ankles.

Though you’ll definitely want to utilize your new “brake” and “gas” pedals, you’ll want to find some version of this mid-foot style strike to use on the bulk of your longer runs. This is especially important for distance runners looking to stay injury-free. And really for all runners, this foot strike style should be a part of any jog.

Lucky for you, we’ve got 3 tips to help you do just that!

Tweak Your Running Posture

forefoot running

Picture this: the foot is at the end of a long kinetic whip.

The way the foot lands is a direct result of what your upper body and lower body are doing. What’s going on both above and below your center of gravity matters.

proper running posture

The only way it can respond properly is if your upper body posture supports it.

This means head stacked on top of shoulders, shoulders on top of hips, etc.

As a result, the hip flexors and glutes will be able to engage and push forward, allowing the stride to open as the leg swings back and cycles forward in one fluid motion. Core strength is an important ingredient here, necessary to keep the rest of the body in line. A strong core while running also minimizes risk of injury in your lower back.

Increasing your hip mobility and strengthening your glutes will help make this possible!

Fix Your Arm Swing

proper running mechanics

For every leg swing, there’s an arm swing, another key ingredient in proper form for your running gait.

This contralateral movement is what drives your running. Often new runners underestimate the importance of the arm swing, but it really does play a big role in good running form.

Improving the range of motion and power of your arm swing will inform the legs, creating an easier, more sustainable foot strike.

Relaxing the shoulders will increase the range of your arm swing and thus drive more power to your legs. Especially on uphills, your body might fall into a slight forward lean. Try to notice as this occurs, and keep your shoulders down and not rounded. Avoid slouching at all costs, and let your arms power you up the hill.

*Remember: arms swing front to back, not crossed in front of you!

Looking for more direction here? Check this out 🙂 

Increase Your Cadence

proper form for running

We all know what that “marathon shuffle” looks/feels like.

Putting a little pep in your step can spark a whole chain of improvements in your running form and therefore, your foot strike! Increasing your cadence simply means increasing the number of steps you take per minute, thereby shortening your stride length.

For example, a stronger hip position allows you to pick the feet up off the ground faster. While it might seem counterintuitive, increasing your cadence improves distance running, not just speed running.

In turn, that increased cadence encourages the feet to relax and re-strike the ground in a more neutral, shock-absorbing manner. This is going to take some of the load off of the hamstrings, which can get irritated if you’re used to overstriding.

Think of it this way, the quicker you can get your landing foot off the ground, the lighter the load it had to bear in the first place. Increasing your cadence makes your overall running style lighter, reduces strain in the quads and hips, and therefore helps to reduce running injuries.

If you struggle to pick up the pace, use a treadmill to get your body used to shorter, quicker steps. Remember to focus on correct running form even as you increase your cadence. No need to get a personal trainer involved if you have no need, just look for some drills and workouts online to get your body used to quicker foot turnover.

Proper Running Technique: Putting It All Together

If you can make a change in these three areas, your feet will start to strike just beneath your hips. Not way out in front of you for your heels to deal with, and not behind you, for your toes and calves to support.

Understanding that the footstrike is directly related to the rest of your body’s running habits will make all the difference.

Even if your new footstrike is heel or toe-dominant, it will likely be more comfortable and sustainable for those long runs.